10001 工程學群 工程與系統科學系

能源核電與輻射

李敏 教授

工程與系統科學系
國立清華大學工程與系統科學系  特聘教授
美國麻省理工學院核子工程       博士

【經歷】 國立清華大學主任秘書
  國立清華大學92、88、100校傑出教學獎
【網站】 http://nes.site.nthu.edu.tw/p/412-1356-10566-1.php
【授課】 熱力學、能源核電與輻射、當代科技爭議、核工原理、工程
  與系統科學概論
【專長】 爐心熱流、核能系統、可靠度評估、雙相流、電腦模擬計算

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Syllabus

課程大綱

核能是我的專業,教育是我的事業!座擁全台唯一的核工科系,清大推出核工領域最熱血的「敏兒」-李敏教授!嚴肅但活潑的敏兒教授,以專業的核能知識,熱血的灌溉著清華學子們!想了解「核能」到底「有何能耐」嗎?想一窺敏兒教授熱情奔放的邏輯講解? NTHU gives you the most hot-blooded “Min”-Prof. Min Lee Prof. Lee, serious but active,passes down his professional nuclear power knowledge to students with all his effort.Do you want to know what power does nuclear power have? Do you want to seeProf. Lee’s enthusiastic logical lecture? Do you want to listen to his exclusive constructive talk?NTHU OCW ceremoniously launches a series of Min’s nuclear powercourses. Let’s take a passionate journey of nuclear power! 
 
 
 
課程說明
Course Description
      人類應不應該繼續使用核能發電,在世界各國都是一個頗具爭議的問題。在國內,是否應該興建核四廠已經爭議了近二十年,核四成了政治的圖騰,成為政黨興衰與個人意志力的象徵。民進黨執政後,以迅雷不及掩耳的方式,宣佈停建核四,接著在在野黨的脅迫下,恢復核四的興建,一停一續之間,衝擊了人們對執政黨的信心,成為造成經濟衰退的最後一根壓死駱駝的稻草。林義雄先生對核四公投的堅持,也直接的促成了公投法的通過。為了對環保團體有所交待,張俊雄院長在宣佈核四復工時,同時聲稱推動”非核家園”政策。七年來,未見政府依程序,將”非核家園”列為正式之國家政策。 
      2003年,國際化石燃料價格開始飆漲;2005年2月,抑制二氧化碳排放的京都議定書生效;已開發國家開始積極尋求可以替代化石燃料產生大規模動力的能源。核能發電成本較不易受到國際能源價格波動影響,以及不排放二氧化碳的兩項重要特質,重新獲得該有的重視。 核能發電所使用的燃料體積小,運輸貯存方便;核能發電成本中,燃料成本所佔的比例較低,故其發電成本較穩定,不易受到國際燃料價格的飆漲影響而有大幅度的波動。因此,能源依賴進口國家均將核能視為準自產能源。台灣超過99%的能源依賴進口。 
      核能發電能減少產生二氧化碳,行政院第二十五次科技顧問會議(94年4月22~23日)中,美國麻省理工學院物理系教授莫里茲博士明白的指出:「如果在考慮二氧化碳減量時,不考慮核能,及無法為這個問題找到解決方案(If you exclude nuclear power from the solution, there is no solution)」。世界各主要國家(如美國、英國、法國、俄國、加拿大、日本、韓國、中國大陸)都認同此項看法,也都以核能為控制二氧化碳排放的主要工具。三年前,馬總統剛接掌政權時,經濟部發表之「能源安全策略報告」 中,擬定二氧化碳減量目標為「於2016至2020年回到2008年排放 量,並於2025年回到2000年排放量」,2000年的排放量為214.5百萬噸。馬總統5月19日在台南大學和近300名大學生座談,274名學生支持減碳優先,只有11名學生認為廢核優先。 
全力發展再生能源是無悔的政策,但我們必須認知下面的現實。再生能源最大的問題為能量密度非常低,需有廣大的土地面積來收集。台灣人口占世界之0.3%,土地面積僅占世界之0.06%,而我們的能源消耗為全球之1%,以單位國土面積耗能來說,台灣排名世界第一,是美國的10倍、日本的近2倍、德國的近3倍、荷蘭的1.3倍。 
 
Whether humans should continue to use nuclear power or not is a controversial issue in the world. In Taiwan, whether we should build the fourth nuclear power plant has been argued for nearly 20 years; moreover, the 4th plant becomes the totem of politics, and the symbol of politic party’s rise and fall and personal perseverance. After starting to be in power, DDP announced to stop establishing the 4th plant in a thunder-like quick way. Next, under the threat of the opposition party, the government restarted the build. Because of the quick change of the decision, people lost the faith of ruling party, and it became the last straw of economic recession. Due to Mr. Lin,Yi-Xiong’s consistence, it also directly promoted the pass of Referendum law. In order to give environmental groups a satisfactory answer, Premier Chang,Chun-Hsiung claimed to promote “nuclear-free homeland” policy simultaneously. For 7 years, we still cannot see the government to list “nuclear-free homeland” policy on the formal national regulations by administrative order.
  In 2003, the price of International fossil fuels began soaring. In February, 2005, 
Kyoto Protocol, which restrains the emission of carbon dioxide, has become effective. Developed countries set up to seek for the energy which can alternative fossil fuels to produce large-quantity power. The cost of nuclear power is not prone to be influenced by the price volatility of International energy, and nuclear power doesn’t generate carbon dioxide emissions. Above two critical features, nuclear power regains value and importance.
  The fuel of nuclear power takes up little volume and is able to be easily transported and stored. The proportion of fuel cost in the nuclear cost is relatively low, so the cost is more stable, which means it’s not easily to be influenced by the international fuel price. Therefore, countries which depend on import energy see it as quasi-homegrown energy. Over 99% of Taiwan’s energy relies on import. 
  Nuclear power can reduce carbon dioxide emission. In the 25th Executive Yuan Technological Consultant Conference (94/4/22-23), Dr. Moritz, physics department in MIT, clearly suggested, “If you exclude nuclear power from the solution, there is no solution.” The chief countries in the world (ex. the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Russia, Canada, Japan, Korea, and China) all agreed with this argument, and also use nuclear power as the main way to control the emission of carbon dioxide. 3 years ago, when President Ma was just in power, in the” Policy Report of Energy Security “by Ministry of Economic Affairs, it set the goal of carbon dioxide reduction to be “reduce the amount in 2016-2020 to the 2008’s amount, and the one in 2025 back to the amount in 2000,” and the emissions in 2000 is 214.5 million tons. President Ma had a discussion with about 300 college students in National Tainan University on May 19th—247 students are for the priority of carbon reduction, and only 11 of them consider non-nuclear is more important.
  Rendering full development to renewable energy is regretless policy, but we must acknowledge the fact: the biggest problem of renewable energy is that energy density is extremely low, and that it needs a broad land to collect the energy. Taiwan’s population accounts for 0.3% of the world’s total population and our land merely accounts for 0.06%, while our energy consumption takes up 1% of the globe. In terms of energy consumption per unit national land area, Taiwan ranks first in the world, which is 10 times of America, nearly 2 times of Japan, about 3 times of Germany, and 1.3 times of Netherland. 
 
 
♠ 本課程的重點即在介紹核能發電的普通常識,內容將包括能源與輻射的基本常識。課程內容不涉艱深之理工理論,歡迎人社院與科管院的同學選修。 
The highlight of this course is the introduction of common sense of nuclear power generation, including basic knowledge of energy and radiation. The course doesn’t include any difficult science and engineering theories, so welcome students of College of Humanities and Social Sciences and College of Technology and Management.
 
 
參考文獻
References  
Richard Wolfson, "Nuclear choice, a Citizen Guide to Nuclear Technology,",
  The MIT Press, 1993 
李敏、黃四昌”核能電廠安全及輻射防護” 
  Li,Min, Huang,Si-Chang “ the Security of Nuclear Power Plant and Radiation Protection”
科學月刊 2011 二月號, 四月號, 五月號 數篇介紹核能,日本福島核子事故的文章 
  Science Monthly, 2011 February, April, May   several articles about nuclear and the accident of Japan Fukushima nuclear disaster
 
 
教學方式 
Teaching Method
課堂講授,問題討論及電廠參觀
  Knowledge teaching, questions discussion, and invitation to electric power plant (unsure schedule).
 
 
教學進度


能源 4小時Nuclear Power 4hrs

♠

核能發電基本知識介紹 10小時 

  Introduction of Basic Knowledge about Nuclear Power 10hrs
♠ 核能發電簡史與現況A Brief History and Status of Nuclear Power 
♠ 核能發電原理 Theory of Nuclear Power
 核電廠安全設計Security Design of Nuclear Power Plant 
 重大核電廠事故回顧The Major Accidents of Nuclear Power Plants
 
 輻射與輻射防護 8小時Radiation and Radiation Protection 8hrs 
♠ 輻射與物質作用Radiation and Material Effects
 輻射劑量與生物效應Radiation Dose and Biological Effects
 重大輻射安全事件回顧The Major Events of Radiation Security 
 核廢料 4小時Nuclear Waste 4hrs
 低階核廢棄物Low-level Nuclear Waste
 使用過核燃料與高階核廢棄物Used Nuclear Fuel and High-level Nuclear Waste
 
♠ 核能發電爭議 4 小時 Controversy over Nuclear Power 4hrs 







期初報告內容為觀看Midterm Report Videos: 


 
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7om7cNI_i2w&feature=relmfu  http://pnn.pts.org.tw/main/?p=25573 



錄影帶後的評論與感想,同學亦可以其他同類型的錄影帶替代,



但必須於報告中註明錄影帶的網址。期初報告的目的為讓學生了解核電爭議的源頭。期初報告未交者,建議退選。
4 video tapes and give the comments and reflections. You are allowed to watch other identical types of films as alternative, but you have to attach the websites of the videos you choose to your papers. The purpose of mid-term paper is to make students understand the controversy of nuclear power. If you don’t hand in your mid-term papers, I highly recommend you to quit the course.

   



 期末報告為對核能相關議題的探討。 
 Final papers is the exploration/discussion about nuclear-related issues.        
  

Keyword

關鍵字

  • 能源核電Nuclear Energy
  • 輻射Radiation
  • 能源的種類與發展energy types and development
  • 核電廠的安全設計Nuclear power plant safety design
  • 福島電廠Fukushima power plant
  • 核能事故Nuclear Accident
  • 各國能源政策National energy policy

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李敏 教授

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