10601 自然科學學群 物理學系

普通物理

吳國安 教授

物理學系
國立清華大學物理學系       特聘教授
美國美國東北大學物理所                  博士

【榮譽】
國立清華大學101、104、108年校傑出教學獎
【研究】 凝態理論 

圖案形成/型態學 
奈米計算材料科學 
非線性物理 (生物諧振子同步化現象、生物物理) 
高分子物理

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Syllabus

課程大綱

人類對於周遭事物,如何隨時間與環境而變化,都充滿好奇心。我們要如何用物理學推敲出萬物的變化,或基於系統性的觀察而提出新的想法,這就是普通物理(一)的課程目標。那要如何養成研究問題的邏輯與方法呢?
Human are curious about how things changed with the times and environment. How can we use physics to figure out the change of things or promote new ideas based on systematic observation? How can we develop the logics and method of doing research? These are the course purposes of General Physics.


課程說明
Description of the course

          人類對於周遭事物,如何隨時間與環境而變化,都充滿好奇心。我們要如何用物理學推敲出萬物的變化,或基於系統性的觀察而提出新的想法,這就是普通物理(ㄧ)的課程目標。那要如何養成研究問題的邏輯與方法呢?本課程以牛頓提出的力學為例,除了學習力學定律之外,也鼓勵同學探討牛頓提出這些理論的原因,同時思考章節之間的關聯性,例如在牛頓的向量力學架構下,已經可以解釋物體的運動,為何還需學習新的能量概念等等。 
          課程內容涵蓋基礎牛頓力學、功與能量概念,在熟悉單粒子運動後,將建構簡單的多粒子系統(剛體)所遵守的物理規則(轉動運動),基於以上的物理知識,詳細探討日常生活中常見的物理現象,如重力、固體與流體、振盪、波動等。同時也將探討愛因斯坦為何會提出不同於牛頓力學的特殊相對論,以及在特殊相對論中架構下,為何在不同慣性座標系的觀察者們,對時間、空間的認知會有所不同。

      We are all curious about how nature works. In order to better grasp the fundamental rules that govern our daily life experiences, this course – General Physics (I) – aims to develop students’ abilities in logical reasoning and scientific problem solving. How do we achieve that goal? For example, we will learn Newton’s laws of motion and gravity in this course. The physics of these laws are important, but how Newton and other scientists discovered (or what motivates them to discover) these laws are equally important as well. In addition, we will learn their logical reasoning processes and systematic approaches to tackle problems. Furthermore, it is crucial to make connections between physics topics and form your own understanding of each topics. For example, since Newton’s laws of motion are sufficient to solve mechanics problem, why do we need to introduce the concept of energy to solve the same mechanics problem. 
      This course will cover Newton's laws of motion and the concept of work & energy. After fully understand the motion of single particle, we then construct a simple many-particle system (Rigid Body), and explore the physical laws it follows (Rotational Motion). Based on the understanding of motion of single particle and many-particle systems, we will discuss the physical phenomena occurred in our daily life, such as gravity, solid & fluid, oscillations and waves. Moreover, we will talk about why Einstein proposed special relativity despite success of Newton’s laws of motion in classical mechanics. Within Einstein’s framework of special relativity, we will demonstrate why observers have different perspectives on time duration and spatial length in different inertial reference frames?
 
 
 
課程教材
Course Material 
物理學系吳國安教授教學投影片
   Lecture notes (PPT) from Dr. Wu,Kuo-An (Dept. of Physics)
 
 
 
參考資料
 References 
1.
The Feynman Lectures on Physics
2.
"Physics", Volume1, by R.Resnick, D.Halliday, and K. S. Krane.
 3. 
"University Physics", 2nd revised edition by H. Benson.
 
 
 
適用對象
Suitable Users
        Who is this course for
對生活中的物理現象有好奇心者,敬邀您一同探索日常生活中物理的奧秘!
  This course is for people who have curiosity for anything or everything! 
 
 
 
教學方式
Teaching Method
        How does this course work
  
課程共 13章節,每一章節包含數個單元。

This course consists of 13 chapters; each chapter includes several segments. 

每單元為10~15分鐘的教學影片,針對單一概念講解,透過例題熟悉單元重點。

Each segment contains a 10-to-15-minitue video and focuses on a specific physics topic. 

全程由授課教師精製之投影片,最佳化課程單元影片,提供融會貫通之學習效果。

This course offers PPTs that are available for downloading. 

著重物理定律背後的意義,及思索問題的邏輯性與一致性,在課堂外,希冀能思辨

 

促進不同問題之間的共通性,舉一反三,解決問題


This course emphasizes the reasoning of physical laws and nurturing the logical reasoning 
  ability, so that students can apply this training to solve problems outside the classroom.

 
 
 

教學進度
Schedule
        What do you expect to learn in this course

1.
動態系統與向量力學 Dynamical Systems & Vector Mechanics
  

 —從牛頓力學談起(向量力學)
     
Starting from Newtonian Mechanics  

2.  功與能Work & Energy
 

 — 純量的角度來思考牛頓定律
     
Understanding Motion from the Scalar Perspective 

3.
位能與力學能守恆 Potential Energy & Conservation of Mechanical Energy
 

 —純量力學好簡單
     
Nothing is Simpler Than Scalar Mechanics 

4.

線性動量 Linear Momentum

  —守恆量與物理問題的簡化
   
Conservation Laws and How do They Simplify Physical Problems 
5.  多粒子系統 Many-particle System 
  —  邁向真實世界的第一步
     
The First Step Towards The Real World 
6.

剛體轉動 Rigid-body Rotation

  — 如何設計容易轉動的輪子
   
 A possible new design for Wheels 
7.

角動量  Angular Momentum

   — 如何設計容易轉動的輪子
       A Possible New Design for Wheels
8.

重力與行星運動 Gravity & Planetary Motion

   不會砸落在牛頓頭上的月球(但是蘋果會)
     
The Moon Doesn*t Fall on Newton*s Head, but Apples Do.
9.

固體與流體  Solid and Fluid

   — 巨觀的物理世界
     
The Macro-scopic Physical Word
10.

振盪 Oscillation

  — 彈簧振盪*單擺運動*金融市場有關係嗎?
   
 Is There a Common Feature for Spring Oscillator,
     Pendulum and Financial Marker?

11. 波動(力學波)  Waves (Mechanical Waves)
   —力學波的普世性
     
The Universality of Mechanical Waves.
12. 聲波 Sound Waves
  — 假人的聲波
      Sound waves for dummies
13. 特殊相對論  Special Relativity
 

— 站在月台上的你似乎瘦了?!
     
You look thin when standing on the platform?!
 

 
 

 

Keyword

關鍵字

  • 普通物理General Physics
  • 牛頓力學Newton's Laws
  • 動態系統與向量力Dynamical Systems & Forces
  • 功與能Work & Energy
  • 位能與力學能守恆 Potential Energy & Conservation Laws
  • 向量微積分Vector Calculus
  • 線性動量Linear Momentum
  • 多粒子系統Many Particle Systems
  • 角動量與剛體轉動Angular Momentum & Rigid Body Rotation
  • 流體與固體 Fluids & Solids
  • 振盪Oscillations
  • 力學波Mechanical Waves
  • 聲波Sound Waves
  • 特殊相對論Special Relativity