10301 人文社會學群 歷史研究所

《資治通鑑》選讀:兩晉

張元 教授

歷史研究所

國立清華大學歷史所   特聘教授
臺灣大學歷史學          博士

【榮譽】 國立清華大學78、83、86學年度傑出教學獎
【教學】 中國通史、史籍導讀、通鑑研讀、中國史問題討論、

魏晉人物析論、資治通鑑選讀:兩晉南北朝
【研究】 宋史、歷史教學、中國思想史、古代史學史
  【經歷】    國立清華大學歷史研究所榮譽退休教授

國立清華大學歷史研究所特聘兼任教授

國立清華大學人文社會學系教授兼系主任

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Syllabus

課程大綱

清大張元教授溫厚而富有情感的聲調有如吸飽墨水的毛筆,風雅而有趣的敘事方式述說歷史故事,彷彿是以學生的腦海為畫布,栩栩如生地描繪出兩晉人物的愛恨嗔癡、道盡沒入歷史洪流的悲歡離合!邊聽故事邊看書不該只是幼童的特權!美好的聽書經驗不應只待成追憶!還在尋找心中嚮往的那位說書人嗎?NTHU Prof. Yuan Chang’s warm and moving tone is like a writing brush full of ink. He tells history stories in an elegant and interesting way as if he paints in students’ brain as canvas. His drawing describes people’s love and affections livelily in Jin Dynasties, and tells the feelings and emotions fading into the flow of history.
 
 
 
課程介紹
Course Description
     《資治通鑑》是一部經典名著,閱讀這部名著,就像閱讀任何經典一樣。我們應該如何閱讀經典作品呢?喬治.史坦納在《勘誤表—審視後的生命》一書中提及我們讀經典時:「經典會問我們:『你了解了嗎?』『你負責任地重新想像了嗎?』『就我提出的種種問題,和蛻變後更豐富的種種潛力,你準備好以此採取行動了嗎?』」(頁22)這也許就是我們閱讀經典的目標和方法,《資治通鑑》的閱讀自然也不例外。本次課程以「兩晉」部分為主要內容。我們選取《通鑑》中的某些片段,或配合正史中的記載,或配合王夫之的《讀通鑑論》,也選一點當今學者的研究,組成閱讀的資料。每一段資料都有標題,資料力求精簡,閱讀力求深入。一個學期所讀《通鑑》可能不多(大概無法達成課程進度所列的內容),但希望養成「熟讀精思」的讀書方法與習慣。 

       本課程希望修習同學在閱讀資料時思考問題,上課時發表各自的意見,形成討論。本課程以思考傳統史著中的「問題」為主,上課不會作古文的白話語譯,同學多讀之後,古文閱讀能力自然加強。 唐人的詩:「萬里山河唐土地,千年魂魄晉英雄」,近人宗白華撰有〈論《世說新語》與晉人的美〉一文,均突顯晉代人物的特色。所以,儘管西晉政局甚亂,東晉內爭不休,仍有其他時代所無的特殊景色,可以「觀看」。閱讀《通鑑》,宛如進入時光的旅程,運用想像力的眼睛,觀看一番。 

       上課開始的十分鐘,有一「開場白」,介紹一本不是歷史,也不是小說的課外書。卡爾維諾在《為什麼讀經典》(時報出版)一書述及「經典」時,提及經典的閱讀與現代作品的閱讀,應是互為背景。他說:「我們可以說,能夠從閱讀經典中獲得最大利益的人,是有技巧地輪流開讀經典與適當代資料的人。」(頁7),「開場白」的作法,即師其意。我們閱讀此書,雖然只是片段,也可以看到一些精彩的故事與動人的情景,只要用心去體會許許多多記錄者、撰述者一字一句寫下這些文字時,蘊藏心中的關懷與感動,這些故事與情景就會產生撼動的力量,讓我們有所轉化,把我們的情志修養帶向更高的境界,讓我們成為繼承傳統優良文化,形塑明日理想社會的好公民。
 
 "Zizhi Tongjian" is a classic masterpiece. Reading this masterpiece is like reading any other classics. How should we read a classic work? In the book " Errata: An Examined Life," George Steiner mentioned, “When we read the classics, they would ask us, ‘Do you understand yet?‘ ’Are you responsible to re-imagine yet?’ ‘As the various issues I raised and all the richer potential after transformation, are you ready to take action based on it?’”(p. 22) This is perhaps the goal and way by which we read classics. "Zizhi Tongjian" is naturally not an exception. The course focuses on “the Jin Dynasties.” We choose part of "Zizhi Tongjian," with the official history, or with Wang Fu-chih's "Theory of Reading Zizhi Tongjian," and also choose a little research of contemporary scholars to consist of reading materials. Each part of information has a title. The information is as simple as possible, and reading is as deep as possible. In a semester, the reading may not be much (probably cannot cover the entire syllabus), but I hope you develop a studying methods and habits with "deep reading and thinking".
  
This course requires students to think when reading materials, present their own opinions in class, and discuss. This course focuses on thinking traditional questions in history books. The old language will be translated into vernacular Chinese. After reading more, the ability to read ancient writing will be enhanced. As a Chinese poem goes, "Million miles of mountains and rivers on Tang’s land, Millennium souls of Jin’s Heroes." Bai-Hua Zhuan composed an article, Discussion of “Shih-Shuo-Hsin-Yu” and the beauty of Jin people. Both the poem and article emphasize the feature of Jin people. So even though the Western Jin was in the political chaos, and the Eastern Jin in the endless domestic argument, another scenery that can’t be seen in other eras still can be viewed. Reading "Zizhi Tongjian" is akin to time travel where you can imagine and view the past.
  
In the first 10 minutes of the class, there is a "prologue" to introduce an extra book which is not a history book nor fiction. In the book "Why Read the Classics" (Times published), when Calvino mentioned classics, he thought reading of classics and reading of modern works should be mutually backgrounds. He said, "This, then, is the reason why the greatest “yield” from reading the classics will be obtained by someone who knows how to alternate them with the proper dose of current affairs."(P. 7) "Prologue" is meant to deliver this thought. When reading this book, despite only a fragment, you can still see some wonderful stories and touching scene. As long as you try to understand every single word written by many recorders and writers and the concern they hold in their heart, the power of these stories and scenarios will develop and transform us. Our emotional accomplishment will be brought to a higher level. Let’s become good citizens who inherit excellent cultural tradition and shape the ideal society of tomorrow. 
 

指定與參考用書
Textbooks and References
 《資治通鑑》、《晉書》、《世說新語》、《讀通鑑論》的片段。

"Zizhi Tongjian"、”Book of Jin”、”Shih-Shuo-Hsin-Yu”、 "Theory of Reading Zizhi
 Tongjian,"
The books and papers related to "Zizhi Tongjian" in the library



 
教學方式
Teaching Methods

 由於這不是教師一人「演講」式的課,而是大家進行「討論」的課,所以,修習同學必須
  出席。課前需閱讀,上課應發言。 
  Because this is not a lecture class but a discussion class, instead, students have to
  attend classes, review, and discuss.
   
 

教學進度
Syllabus
 
 【WeeK1】
《資治通鑑》是一本怎樣的書 
Course Description:What Kind of Book is "Zizhi Tongjian" 
 
 【WeeK2】
晉武平吳 天下一統(一) 
Emperor of Jin Defeated Wu, the World Was United I 
     1.羊祜王濬 乗積極準備
     Yang Hu and Wang Jun actively prepared
     2.賈充專權 女適太子
     Jia Chong held the power, a woman served the prince
     3.羊陸對峙 佳人佳話
     Yang Hu and Lu Kang battled, nice people and words
 
 
【WeeK3】
晉武平吳 天下一統(二)
Emperor of Jin Defeated Wu, the World Was United II 
     4.范粲不言 亢志堅忍
     Fan Tsan’s silence, will, and persistence
     5.羊祜上疏 籲主伐吳
     Yang Hu’s Letter to the Emperor, advise the king attack Wu
     6.馬隆西討 平定涼州 
     Ma Lung attacked the west, conquered Liang Chou
     7.姿貌魁偉 文武長才
     Tough appearance, talent in both military and civil field
 
  
【WeeK4】
晉武平吳 天下一統(三) 
Emperor of Jin Defeawted Wu, the World Was United III 
     8.武帝決定 大舉伐吳
     Emperor of Jin decided to attack Wu.
     9.并官務農 省事清心
     Officers became a farmer, relaxed and free
     10.一片降幡出石頭
     A white flag hung on the castle.
 
 
 
【WeeK5】
侈汰無度 動亂不已(一) 
Extravagance and Turmoil I 
     1.豪貴驕奢 風氣侈靡
     Luxurious nobles, extravagant fad
     2.分封子弟 並未之國 宗王出鎮 坐擁強兵 
     Coronate courtier, King of Tsung owned great military power
     3.楊駿敗陣 賈后專朝 天理既絕 大亂將作
     Yang Jun failed, Empress Jia led the empire, justice disappeared, the turmoil began
     4.名教自然 將無同!
     No difference between Confucianism and Taoism
 
  
【WeeK6】
侈汰無度 動亂不已(二) 
Extravagance and Turmoil II 
     5.拓跋興起 西略諸國
     Tuoba rose, attacked western countries
     6.羌胡內徙漢人侵之 性悍情憤暴害不測 反其舊土戎晉不雜 不憚小勞長享安逸
     Qiang and Hu moved, Han invaded
     7.賨李入蜀 蜀民大悅
     Tou Lee entered Shu, Shu people were happy
     8.驕者必敗 識者知之Pride goes before a fall, wise men know
 
 
 
【WeeK7】
中原板蕩 西晉覆亡(一) 
Central Plain Chaos, Western Jin Doom I 
     1.四海鼎沸 胡族奮起
     Four seas boiled, Hu rose
     2.劉淵稱王 英傑為輔
     Liu Yuan became a king, the talented assisted
     3.羯人石勒 漸露頭角
     Shi Le from Jie was coming
     4.陳敏據有江東 英俊不附 顧榮輕揮羽扇 敵眾潰逃
     Chen Min occupied the east of the river, handsome and independent, Ku Jung waved the feather fan, all enemies escaped
     5.李雄稱帝 盜亦有道 
     Li Hsiung became a king, a robber also has his talent
  
 
【WeeK8】
    期中測驗 
     Mid-term
 
【WeeK9】
中原板蕩 西晉覆亡(二)
Central Plain Chaos, Western Jin Doom II 
     6.清靜為政 江東歸心
     Silent politics, the east of the river was back
     7.石勒勢力 不斷增長
     Shi Le’s power continued to grow
     8.江左夷吾 正色新亭
     Yi Wu from the east of the river, Pure color of Xin Ting 
     9.東夷不靖 慕容興起
     East was not peaceful, Murong rose
     10.石勒趨向 張賓獻策
     Shi Le leaned, Zhang Bin provided a plan 
 
   
【WeeK10】
中原板蕩 西晉覆亡(三)
Central Plain Chaos, Western Jin Doom III
     11.受制於人 吳人恚怨
     Controlled by others, Wu resented
     12.擊楫渡江 誓復中原
     Beat with paddles, swear to recover Central Plain
     13.妄殘殘虐 宜其覆滅 
     Cruel torture, doom again
     14.西晉一代 干寶總結 
     Western Jin, Gan Bao made it end
 
  
【WeeK11】
帝即位 祚延江東
Emperor Chaired, Blessing Extended to the East of the River 
     1.御床共坐 王導固辭
     Emperor’s bed was shared, Wang Dao quit
     2.刻碎之政 內亂不免
     Bad policy, civil war was unavoidable
     3.王敦舉兵 士人惶惑
     Wang Dun attacked, scholars were anxious 
     4.廷尉山頭 蘇峻起事
     Official controlled, Su Jun rose
     5.温嶠陶侃 擊滅蘇峻
     Wen Jiao and Tao Kan defeated Su Jun
     6.聰敏恭勤 明毅善斷 窺窬之志 折翼而止
     Intelligent diligent bright determined, secret will stopped
  
 
【WeeK12】
胡羯雄張 中原動盪(一) 
Rise of Hu and Jie, Central Plain Turmoil I 
     1.越石孤忠 宜在褒恤
     Yueh Shih was royal alone, worth compliment
     2.遼東士民 不問華夷
     Liaodong people did not know Central Plain
     3.關中情勢 擾攘不安
     The situation in Guanzhong was chaotic
     4.隴上壯士 有陳安
     Lungshang man, Chen An
     5.救援洛陽 擒獲劉曜
     Saved Loyang, arrested Liu Yao
     6.掃平秦隴 石勒即位
     Stuck Chinlung, Shi Le became a king
  
 
【WeeK13】
胡羯雄張 中原動盪(二)
Rise of Hu and Jie, Central Plain Turmoil II 
     7.國家禍根 宜早清除
     The root of domestic disasters needed cleaning earlier
     8.石勒去世 動亂即起
     Shi Le passed away, the turmoil began
     9.關山萬里 致忠朝廷
     Thousands of miles of people were royal to the government
     10.石趙君主 禮佛敬僧
     King Shi Zhao respected Buddhism and monks
     11.石虎父子 奢糜殘暴
     King Shi Zhao respected Buddhism and monks
     12.乃心宗國 得歸故里
     Who royal to the country could go back to homeland
 
  
 
【WeeK14】
木猶如此 人何以堪(一) 
Wood was damaged, people suffered I 
     1.東晉兩宋 船山絜論
     Jingzhou’s entrance was controlled by Huan Wen
     2.荊州門戶 桓温當之
     King of Shu was too proud, Huan Wen defeated him
     3.蜀主驕淫 桓温克之
     Who killing brothers and Father is cold-blooded
     4.殺弟謀父 禽獸不如
     Who killing brothers and Father is cold-blooded
     5.危難當前 嚴肅對待 訴之情理 化解無形 
     Danger was coming, took it serious, through reasoning and attachment, solved it
 
   
【WeeK15】
木猶如此 人何以堪(二) 
Wood was damaged, people suffered II 
     6.身處喪亂 何其難也
     Led army into Central Plain as if no one there
     7.揮軍入關 不渡灞水 捫蝨而談 旁若無人
     If Chin people had been there, they would have known Fu Sheng was falsely incriminated.
     8.秦人若在 當知苻生之多誣 東海王堅 能得英雄之為助
     Wang Chien from East China Sea could get heroes help.
     9.安石不出當如蒼生何
     Anshi did not become a official, what could people do
     10.思念愛子 鬢髮中白 
     Missed the beloved son, hair became white
 
  
【WeeK16】
木猶如此 人何以堪(三) 
Wood was damaged, people suffered III 
     11.用兵之道 豈在殺戮
     Huan Wen attacked northward, not following Hsi Chao’s ide, stayed at Fangtou, defeated by Murong
     12.桓温北伐 不從郗超之謀 枋頭徘徊 終為慕容所敗
     The truth of history cannot be covered
     13.史事之實 終不能沒
     ang Meng’s idea was refuted by Sima Guang
     14.王猛計謀 温公斥之
     Huan Wen desired the crown, Wang and Hsieh resisted with whole effort
     15.桓温顗覦大位 王謝全力扺制 
     Huan Wen desired the crown, Wang and Hsieh resisted with whole effort
 
  
【WeeK17】
世族門閥 日薄崦嵫(一)
aristocratism’s sun set I  
     1.苻堅寛弘 王猛精算
     Fu Jian was generous, Wang Meng was cautious
     2.桓郗凋零 盛勢不再 王謝風華 掌握大權
     Huan Hsi failed, no longer strong, Wang and Hsieh held the power
     3.君主執意南巡 臣下表態贊否
     The King insisted going southward to inspect, courtiers expressed their agreement or disagreement
     4.秦軍百萬兵敗肥水何以故 燕祚已興不殺苻堅有說乎 
     hin Army with millions of soldiers failed, Yen Tso has risen but did not kill Fu Jian
 
  
【WeeK18】
    期末測驗  
     Final Term
 
 
 

 

Keyword

關鍵字

  • 歷史學與資治通鑑Historiography and Tzu-chiz t'ung-chien(Zizhi tongjian
  • 魏末情勢分析Analysis of the situation during the late Wei
  • 張華其人About Zhang Hua
  • 華戒之間Relationship between the Chinese and non-Chinese hordes

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張元 教授

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